Tag Archives: middle leaders

Are you ready to show-off your talented middle leaders to Ofsted? Seven suggestions to help…

Middle leaders are firmly on the agenda as we understand more and more about the vital role they play in school improvement. A school-led system has middle leaders at the heart of it. Organisations as diverse as SSAT, Teaching Leaders and NAHT Edge are all focused on their development. The Department for Education is expanding a secondment programme from thirty high-performing middle leaders to a hundred. Even Ofsted now explicitly look at middle leaders as part of the leadership and management of a school.


Middle leadership in the latest Ofsted framework

  • 156: Inspectors should consider the quality of middle leadership in the school and:
    • the extent to which schools are adequately developing their middle leadership
    • the succession planning and development of future leaders in the school

But who are these middle leaders, what qualities do they need and how do we help to grow them in our schools? In my role I have the pleasure of travelling the country each week, visiting schools and meeting both senior and middle leaders – often discussing those exact questions. They’re increasingly pressing issues, as our recent research with more than a thousand school leaders found that recruitment was a growing challenge for all roles, but most of all when it comes to hiring experienced teachers such as those with a Teaching and Learning Responsibility or ‘TLR’. Many schools have to re-advertise or even withdraw such roles – never finding anybody suitable. And this will only store-up trouble later on. You can bet we’ll have a head teacher recruitment crisis in the near future if we don’t get the support and incentives in place now for our middle leaders. As it stands just a third of middle leaders fancy the top job in school and only half of deputies do.

And yet many schools and groups of schools seem to manage it, building up a strong, talented and motivated middle leadership team. Based on my experiences of seeing some such success stories here are seven suggestions for how a school can grow and develop a healthy stream of talented middle leaders, as well as some questions to prompt your thinking. I’m sure many schools are already doing these things or have taken different approaches, in which case do get in touch to share your own good practice. In this era of tight budgets and school-to-school support it’s more important than ever that we share ideas, challenges and solutions.


1) Start by clarifying the school strategy and priorities

Re-examine your vision and strategy documents through the eyes of your middle leaders. Is there a detailed enough articulation of what‘s expected and needed from them, both now and in the future? How are you assessing whether they have sufficient expertise in the right areas to drive things forward? What’s the plan to help them make-up any gaps and have they bought into it?

Start with their teaching and learning capabilities. Are they expert in all the basics of pedagogy, is their knowledge up to date and informed by evidence, and are they spending most of their time in classrooms – both supporting others and teaching themselves? Mill Field Primary School in Leeds was judged outstanding by Ofsted this year, including for leadership and management. Middle leaders were singled out for driving improvement by still being ‘fully involved in the checking of pupils’ progress’.

Next think about their leadership and management duties, what does good look like at your school and do middle leaders understand and agree with what’s expected of them? Mill Field’s middle leaders were praised by Ofsted because the ‘impact of their actions is being felt across the school in the high levels of collaboration amongst staff’. Does everybody at your school understand the approach for evaluating staff performance? This is especially important for middle leaders because they’ll be doing it with other staff. You can make use of regular appraisals, professional standards and other competency-based frameworks. You can also look at what other schools are doing, sending staff to see them in action and discuss strategies with their leaders. A bit of research online will find a wealth of resources too. Are you encouraging questions and ideas from your whole leadership team, enabling them to seek out a range of different sources of advice and support to inform practice at your school. Are different people given clear tasks, such as examining evidence that can help inform the practice of teaching, managing or leading.

  • Do you know how middle leaders support your school strategy?
  • What skills, knowledge and experience do they need?
  • What culture do you have now and what do you want to create?


2) Systematically spot and nurture talented people

Having identified and agreed the qualities that middle leaders need, check that your school’s approach to identifying and supporting potential leaders is systematic and transparent. It should include those who have those qualities now as well as those with the potential to develop them in the future. It’s usually better to be as open as possible about both what those qualities are and the school’s process of identifying and nurturing them. There should be clear roles and responsibilities for those involved, including governors for more senior positions. You can work with other schools on talent spotting, recruitment and CPD too, to encourage impartiality and fresh thinking. Equality and fairness should be baked-in to the whole process, informed by the nine protected characteristics and the community the school serves.

It’s always important (and efficient) to nurture talented people internally. All staff, including middle leaders, should have clear development goals they’re working towards. But do these personal goals align with the wider school strategy and are they supported by a systematic approach to CPD? Again middle leaders can lead on different parts of the CPD offer. External expertise can be valuable but with tight budgets it’s important to evaluate such suppliers thoroughly – middle leaders can ask for evidence of impact, external indicators of quality and speak with others who have worked with them. There’s also a lot that schools can do for themselves. If established properly, mentoring and coaching programmes can help staff to develop each other. Middle leaders can ensure there are clear expectations and guidance for those involved, as well as evaluating how effective it is. Again, connecting with other local schools can be effective, widening the pool of people involved. Middle leaders are often active in professional learning communities, usually around their stronger subjects. Such communities can be a mix of in-person and virtual, but you can ask your middle leaders to bring any learning back in to school to share with others.

  • Does everybody know what a good middle leader at your school looks like?
  • When hiring are you casting the net widely to find the best possible people?
  • Are middle leaders involved in developing a systematic approach to CPD?


3) Think creatively about resources

Schools are having to do more with less, so are having to think holistically and flexibly about resourcing their middle leadership positions. Establishing a wider network of people can allow for sharing talented individuals across schools, either using informal agreements or more structured arrangements, such as secondments. If you think back to the qualities middle leaders at your school need to support the strategy, chances are you may not always need full-time permanent roles to give the school what it needs. Sharing staff across other schools can be one solution. The CfBT Schools Trust is working in this way, building a team of subject specialists, each working across three Trust schools. Such roles can be demanding, requiring both teaching expertise as well as the ability to engage and influence busy colleagues. You can also be flexible about contracting arrangements, but make sure staff are consulted properly and are crystal clear on the relationship. It’s always good practice to have a rigorous documentation process for such discussions, to avoid any confusion in future.

  • How is your school connecting with other local schools?
  • Are your middle leaders visiting and hosting other middle leaders?
  • Does your school have the skills it needs across the whole team?


4) Develop a plan for investing long-term

Often the best way to get the middle leaders your school needs is to grow them from within the school. That takes time and a clear, long-term strategy. Three of the six schools in the Primary Advantage (hard) federation in Hackney form a Teaching School. This combined with their relationship with the UCL Institute of Education (IoE) gives them access to new teachers through the full range of routes into the profession, including Schools Direct. It takes time to build up such relationships and capacities internally, but they can give you more options as well as access to a wider range of teachers and skills. The size of the federation also creates capacity, allowing senior leaders to work in other schools, both within and beyond the six schools. This then allows their middle leaders opportunities to step, from just a few days a week to full-time.

  • Is the school engaging with talented new people from a range of sources?
  • Is there a one, three and five year plan for bringing NQTs to the school?
  • Which partners is the school working with?


5) Build-in spare capacity where you can

Leadership development and succession planning should be continuous processes at your school, rather than isolated episodes. However things don’t always go to plan. That talented middle leader you’ve been developing for years, investing time and resources in, may end up taking a job elsewhere, or go on m/paternity leave at a crucial moment. Try not to put all your eggs in one basket, building a broad team of skilled middle leaders. Again connections with other schools can help.

  • Have you got an annual plan for CPD and different succession scenarios?
  • Do you have a clear sense of each middle leaders’ strengths and ambitions?
  • Can you plan hand-over periods, to get new post-holders up to speed quickly?


6) Give people challenging opportunities

The best way for many middle leaders to develop is by learning on the job. However those I meet often get responsibility quickly without sufficient support to go with it. That’s not really about salary, that’s about creating a process that feels manageable, allowing them to build confidence and experience over time. Not everyone wants to or is able to be either a middle or senior leader. Greater responsibilities don’t have to be permanent but it helps if people understand exactly what they’re signing up for. Often a good ‘leadership’ experience can encourage them to want to step up and take more on. The opposite is also true, so plan carefully. Our members talk about the satisfaction they can get as middle leaders from helping children across the whole school and by working alongside their teachers. Nearly all teachers seem to be perfectionists, wanting to do their best for their children. Becoming a leader is different, as you start to work indirectly, succeeding through others. That requires a degree of letting go, which can be particularly hard for new leaders. The most effective schools seem to give their middle leaders and those they work with a healthy mix of both structure and space.

  • How are middle leaders at your school encouraged to take time for reflection?
  • What can you offer your most talented middle leaders to hold on to them?
  • How are you balancing responsibility and accountability for middle leaders?


7) Make sure they have good role models

The recent ‘workload challenge’ highlighted how much school leaders can influence practices within their schools. Middle leaders are often the ones moderating work, helping colleagues with marking and supporting data collection. Schools can work with their middle leaders to identify efficiencies and avoid practices that don’t support learning. Middle leaders are also role models for staff, setting the culture of the whole team, so it’s important they can access positive role models themselves. Senior leaders can set the tone when it comes to issues such as work-life balance by practicing what they preach. I know one head teacher who insists on always shutting the school gates by 4.30pm on a Friday, going home himself to encourage his team to follow suit. Leaders have a duty to shield colleagues from some of the pressures of the job, sharing only those challenges and responsibilities that people can do something about. But they can also share the joys and satisfaction that only come with leadership, having a positive impact on a wider group of colleagues and students. Middle leaders can influence the whole feel of a school so encourage them to both share insights from colleagues and to be positive.

  • Is the school culture and mood discussed openly and regularly?
  • What positive anecdotes and stories are middle leaders hearing and sharing?
  • Are middle leaders connected with role-models within and beyond the school?

(a version of this blog first appeared through my former day-job, for the SSAT journal)


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Nine ways middle leaders can reach beyond their own school (and why they should)

Make no mistake, being a middle leader in a school these days is a tough job. You’re probably spending most of your time teaching and trying to fit leadership and management responsibilities around it. There’s a good chance you proved your abilities teaching your own class and then got given additional responsibilities across the whole school. It’s likely you’ve had little to no training for all that other stuff; instead, you learned most things on the job. Your school probably has a senior leadership team, but no clear group of middle leaders that meets regularly. You’re probably juggling 101 different things, so it doesn’t feel like you have any time to take a step back and lift your head beyond your own school.

One of the privileges of my last role was that I got to visit schools across the country and meet lots of different middle leaders. If any of the concerns mentioned above sound familiar, believe me you’re not alone. In our schools, there are about 200,000 middle leaders and each of whom is teaching on top of their school-wide responsibilities. Given tight budgets and rising expectations of schools, it’s more important than ever before that every middle leader is motivated, supported and satisfied. Increasingly, we need our middle leaders to not only have a positive impact in their own school but also to be excited by the challenges that come with helping colleagues and students further afield. Working beyond your own school could help to improve outcomes for students, and it may also bring you greater satisfaction and a more rewarding career.

Here are nine suggestions for how middle leaders can broaden their horizons beyond their own school.

  1. Make a plan. Start thinking about what you’re trying to achieve. For example, you could ask yourself which students at your school need the most help and where you might learn from others that have supported similar students. Perhaps one of your colleagues is struggling with something, so how might you find out how to help them? And what do you want to do yourself? Are there parts of your job you particularly enjoy, or are there some areas you’re still unsure of? Once you’ve decided on a problem you’d like to fix, work back from there. Try to be as specific and realistic as possible. How might you address it, who do you need to speak to and what’s a realistic time frame? Share your ideas with your line manager and get their feedback and support
  2. Develop your subject leadership. Middle leaders often have an impressive mix of hand-on teaching experience and deep subject knowledge. They may be local champions for their subject and get involved with communities of practice, TeachMeets and subject associations. The moderation of teaching practices across schools can help those involved to learn from each other
  3. Mentor and be mentored. Middle leaders should proactively seek to develop and practise their coaching skills with others. Such relationships can be powerful with peers, junior colleagues, senior staff or even pupils. Remember, it’s important to ask good questions and not just provide the answers in such situations. This encourages the other person to reflect
  4. Use research, evidence and data to inform practice. Middle leaders should be advocates of evidence, sharing insights with colleagues and keen to learn. Lesson study can be a particularly powerful professional development model
  5. Make continuing professional development your own. Middle leaders are increasingly taking responsibility for owning their professional development – finding and evaluating different sources. This can range from formal training to Twitter chats (#UKEdChat, #MLTChat or #SLTChat), blogs or events (#ResearchEd or TeachMeets). You should reflect on what you’ve learned and document the evidence of that learning, even if it’s just a few notes and the time spent
  6. Find a secondment. School can feel like a small place sometimes, especially if it’s not part of a family, federation or trust. If you want to develop new skills, try a different role or tackle a particular challenge, a secondment opportunity could be a great way to do so without losing touch with your home school
  7. Connect with the community. Schools are doing more with less and middle leaders could build relationships with other local stakeholders through specific projects. For example, working with parents and carers to put in place strategies for the early identification of vulnerable children to prevent long-term problems
  8. Trial a new intervention. Middle leaders are typically the ones testing and evaluating a new teaching practice, supplier or learning technology in their school. By comparing notes with others locally and taking an experimental mindset – with a clear and modest measure to judge success – you can quickly work out what’s effective for your students and what isn’t
  9. Be a governor at another school. Working with the senior leadership team and governors of another school can be an enlightening and rewarding experience. All you need to give is a little of your own time

This blog was written for Challenge Partners.

(a version of this blog first appeared through my former day-job)

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#CollegeofTeaching (part one): what might the college of teaching mean for middle leaders?

Many of the middle leaders I’ve spoken to recently are uncertain about what’s happening with the college of teaching, what it means for them and how they might get involved. There have been various announcements by government, including some start-up funding and a front-runner group to set it up. There’s also a lively debate happening via blogs, Twitter and beyond.

To set the scene and encourage discussion, I’ve listed 10 questions below for you to answer about what the college of teaching may look like in time and the benefits it could bring to the profession.

  1. What would encourage you to join such a voluntary association of teachers?
  2. Are there useful approaches that work in other countries or walks of life?
  3. How could the college of teaching include both middle and senior leaders without being dominated by them?
  4. What would create a genuine grassroots movement that’s authentic and accessible to teachers everywhere and not just to those in the Westminster bubble? TeachMeets, ResearchED and the various Twitter chats are good examples of how this could be done
  5. Who would ensure the college of teaching is independent of any particular organisational interests, including government, unions and others?
  6. How could it be as transparent and consultative as possible, and engaged with and answerable to a broad membership base across the profession?
  7. How could it be funded in time and would this create the right incentives?
  8. Should it be focused first and foremost on classroom practice and explore leading teaching and learning in time?
  9. What would ensure it’s informed but not dominated by research, data and other forms of evidence? [What gives doctors and their colleges clout is an unassailable grasp of the evidence about what works in their profession. This doesn’t mean they know everything, but it does mean they know best (and certainly more than politicians) .]
  10. How could it raise the standards and capacity of the whole teaching profession?

(a version of this blog first appeared through my former day-job)

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Ten top tips for conducting staff appraisals

One of the most worrying findings from our recent research with middle leaders was how few had received training or felt confident in conducting staff appraisals. Many of these individuals have become excellent teachers, but they may have had less experience or support when it comes to management tasks, such as formal performance reviews.

Given it’s that time of year again for many, we thought we’d share some suggestions to help you go through this process, either with an NQT (see the statutory guidance from the DfE) or a more experienced colleague. You probably know much of this already, but it’s always worth a refresher. Remember, these principles also hold true for your own appraisals with your manager.

  1. There should be no surprises for either party at a formal, six or twelve-month review session. You should be discussing progress against performance objectives and personal development regularly in line management meetings, not just at appraisal time. We recommend you do this at least once a month. These more informal discussions should include prompt feedback from recent developments as they happen, not stored up as a list for an annual review. Both of you have ongoing responsibilities to the process and each other as part of your management relationship
  1. Both parties should be well prepared for these meetings. Make the time to read the relevant policies in advance and ask for any clarification about the process beforehand. Both of you should also look at previous objectives and documentation, including any notes and summary evidence gathered since the last review. It pays to think through the structure and sequence of what needs to be discussed and the key points under each heading. You can then agree the agenda with each other in advance
  1. Find a suitable location and amount of time to conduct the appraisal. As the manager, you should explicitly create an environment for a professional, frank discussion. Agree the purpose and parameters of the discussion from the start. Such reviews should allow you to briefly reflect on their performance since the last review and to make plans for the future. This can often have implications on pay awards, benefits and responsibilities. Work to a clear, structured agenda and make your own summary notes of the discussion as you go. Be mindful of the time
  1. Use positive, specific feedback wherever possible, especially at the start of the session. Use this as an opportunity to discuss their welfare. Find out how they are and discuss their role to ascertain if there are any workload issues and whether they feel supported by you. Ask open questions about what might have gone even better. Let the appraisee do most of the talking, so they can provide brief evidence of what they’ve achieved and what they’d like to improve on. Try to use careful questioning to invite self-evaluation, reflection and (hopefully) ownership
  1. Try not to make the discussion personal. Instead, focus on behaviours and the results, not personality or emotion. Encourage their specific examples. For example, working through a summary of past events and their outcomes
  1. Try to make the discussion as collaborative as possible by exploring successes and areas for improvement together. You don’t need to have all the answers or solutions; you should encourage the other person to reflect on what’s happened and suggest next steps, guiding them where necessary. Watch out for over- and underestimation, and provide alternative viewpoints or evidence, where appropriate
  1. Keep the focus of the discussion on outcomes, primarily for pupils but also for staff (including themselves). Highlight and praise any evidence they provide of having a positive impact on either pupils or staff
  1. Remember, appraisals are a chance to look at both personal performance and the needs of the wider organisation; you should develop objectives and development goals that try to address both. There should be alignment across other people in the team and the wider organisation. So, for example, if a school has the strategic objective to ‘narrow the gap between pupil premium students and other pupils’, you should have coordinated this together, using your different roles to help you achieve this. As you become more senior, you’ll start to achieve success more through others rather than directly yourself
  1. Aim to end the meeting on a positive note because you want your colleague to leave motivated. They should have a clear plan for how they want to develop themselves within the next period and what performance objectives they should be aiming to achieve. They should also understand what part they need to play, both for the team and the wider organisation. Ultimately, this should be about reasoning how they’ll specifically help pupils to progress. Send them a summary of your notes and compare with any they might have taken
  1. Lastly, although your role as a manager is to explain the appraisal process as it is, you should encourage them to accept and work within it. You can also create an opportunity for reflection and honest feedback about how well this has worked, but do so afterwards, not on the day of the appraisal session itself

I hope these ideas have sparked some of your more positive memories of the appraisals you’ve been involved with in the past, so you can help your team to rise to the challenges ahead of them. Feel free to use the comments section to share any other suggestions.

This blog was written for The Key.

(a version of this blog first appeared through my day-job)

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What might your school say to Ofsted about its middle leaders?

Within the latest guidance from Ofsted is the following new requirement.

“Inspectors should consider the quality of middle leadership in the school and: 

  • the extent to which schools are adequately developing their middle leadership
  • the succession planning and development of future leaders in the school”

But what does this actually mean for your school? And how might you demonstrate the above to inspectors? I suggest asking the following four questions.

Is it clear who the middle leadership team at your school is?

Middle leadership can be a slightly slippery term, with the definition varying between schools and phases. However, each school should be able to clearly and simple describe whom they consider to be middle leaders and, importantly, why. Does this group have the opportunity to meet regularly, including occasions without senior leaders or classroom teachers present? It’s also worth considering what links they have with other teachers who are in the same position as them outside of the school whether that’s through the local authority, subject association, union or other network.

Do middle leaders at your school know what is and isn’t their responsibility?

Again this will vary between schools, but there should be clarity about the tasks and responsibilities this group should be leading on. All staff should have been involved in creating and owning the vision for their school, including their own particular priorities. This is especially important for this group of staff as they’ll be translating the vision to their teams on a daily basis, helping each teacher to own it for themselves. Consulting and embedding the values, objectives and processes of a school with middle leaders is time well-spent. It might be an idea to document the priorities and tasks common to different groups of staff within a school, identifying those clearly owned by one group and any that may be shared. For example, you’d expect every staff member to understand their role in relation to Ofsted, but exactly what that means for them will vary depending on their role.

Is there an evidence-based development programme in place for middle leaders?

In a climate of limited funding and resources, it’s vital both schools and school leaders are proactive about developing themselves and their peers. This can be about working smarter, not harder. Prioritising time and funds for developing your middle leaders is crucial, but it’s not enough alone. You also need a school-wide approach for professional development which is developed and owned by staff. A rigorous approach to using evidence to test and then refine different approaches to staff learning is the key here. This isn’t always about expensive external provision. Much can be done in-school and often expertise can be bought in for specific purposes within the framework established by the school. There’s much value in accredited leadership programmes such as NPQML and NPQSL, but these need to be part of a mixed economy available to middle leaders within a coherent programme. This should allow for a number of different career pathways, within and beyond the school.

Does your school systematically spot talent?

High performing organisations in any sector – whether that’s public services, business or charities – have a common organisational trait: they know how to spot and nurture high performers. You’d never treat a class of individuals in the same way so use this philosophy with your colleagues. What are the particular talents and areas of development for each of them as well as for you? Your school probably has a clear description of what good teaching looks like, but does it have something similar to describe good middle leadership? Middle leaders should be involved in defining the behaviours, skills, values and characteristics those in their roles might possess. This should be backed up by systematic processes across the school to develop, assess and reward those qualities. There should be a direct link with the school vision and the personal performance plan of staff.

If you’ve got answers to these four questions, your school is well on the way to satisfying Ofsted’s requirements. But more importantly, you’re taking advantage of one of the most valuable resources at your disposal. By helping middle leaders reach their potential, they’ll be able to have a huge positive impact on students both in their own classrooms and their teams’ classrooms.

There’s growing evidence about the link between strong middle leadership and school improvement. There’s also a huge demand out there from middle leaders for more support. Just more than a year ago NAHT members unanimously voted to set up NAHT Edge, a new section of NAHT designed solely with middle leaders in mind. Senior leaders have a duty to nurture the next generation of leaders, and NAHT Edge has been set up to help to do just that. Find out more on our website, or drop me an email.

(a version of this blog first appeared through my day-job at NAHT Edge)

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Can you spot the difference between deputy heads and middle leaders?

During the summer we carried out a survey to explore how education professionals felt about the challenges they face in schools.

More than a thousand people replied including deputies, assistant heads, heads of department, SENCos and other middle leaders. While examining the data, we looked at how middle leaders and our control group of deputies compared. There were some key differences in their responses, especially in the actual words each group used most often. We ran their responses through tagxedo.com to create these word clouds for a quick, visual overview on two key questions. For anyone unfamiliar with the format, the bigger the word the more often it was used.

What (if anything) currently deters you from applying for promotion?

Middle leaders said…


Deputies said…

This suggests middle leaders’ greatest concerns around promotion are about the lack of time and gaining sufficient experience for the role. The perceived pressures of senior roles and resulting personal concerns, such as work-life balance, are also influential, but stress is perhaps not as big an issue as we would expect.

In contrast, the overriding issue deterring deputies from promotion is pressure, whether it’s in relation to the responsibilities of headship or accountability to Ofsted. Lack of time is still a concern, but there are other greater worries.

On a more positive note we also asked another question of both groups.

What do you enjoy most about your current role? 

Middle leaders said…

 Deputies said…

The most commonly used words to describe what they like about their jobs are reassuringly similar. Both groups (thankfully) enjoy working with children and teaching. It’s interesting to see that leading and developing others are key parts of both types of role, but as you might expect those aspects of work are more commonly mentioned by deputies than middle leaders. Similarly working with colleagues was often mentioned by both groups, but more often by middle leaders.

One of NAHT Edge’s early middle leader adopters (and video star), Tom Griffiths (year five teacher and phase two leader) describes middle leaders as “the great unknown…the group of people in schools who aren’t recognised necessarily specifically for the job that they do”. It’s exactly because of this gap that we’re here to provide the support all middle leaders need – helping them to be better teachers, managers and leaders. If you haven’t already, we hope you decide to join in.

We’d like to hear from you about whether your responses to these questions are different. What deters you from applying for promotion? What do you enjoy (and least)? Members can join the debate now in our discussion forum.

(a version of this blog first appeared through my day-job at NAHT Edge)

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